“Neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, advances the understanding of human thought, emotion, and behaviour. It includes a study of the brain, the spinal cord, and networks of sensory nerve cells, or neurons, throughout the body. The human brain contains roughly a 100 billion neurons, the functional units of the nervous system.
Neurons communicate with each other by sending electrical signals through long distances and then release chemicals called neurotransmitters which cross synapses – small gaps between neurons” (ref. Society for Neuroscience).
Critical components of the nervous system are molecules, neurons, and the processes within and between cells. These are organized into large neural networks and systems controlling functions such as vision, hearing, learning, breathing and, ultimately, all of human behavior.
Understanding how the brain works gives leaders and managers a new edge on developing individuals in organisations and/or teams. It gives a scientific understanding for why people do the things that they do and gives them a different perspective to leadership and management. Effective leadership and management starts with understanding human thought, emotion and behaviour.
The nervous system consists of two main parts. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that serve the neck and arms, trunk, legs, skeletal muscles and internal organs.
Much of what is known about the mechanisms underlying these functions was first discovered through animal studies and then confirmed in humans.
Through their research, neuroscientists work to:
- Describe the human brain and how it functions normally
- Determine how the nervous system develops, matures and maintains itself through life
- Find ways to prevent or cure many devastating neurological and psychiatric disorders
Only in recent decades has neuroscience become a recognized discipline. It is now a unified field that integrates biology, chemistry, physics and business with studies of structure, physiology, and behavior, including human emotional and cognitive functions.
From a business perspective executives are required to engage with complex decision-making daily as they are constantly challenged to restructure and adapt their strategies to ensure they address the evolution of their respective organization, and its market.
Our lab at NIB has done remarkable research in neuroscience and its application to business. Our research includes the study of various parts of the brain, neurotransmitters and components bands through brain mapping and EEG (electroencephalogram).
Various constructs in neuroscience are researched by various experts in the field of neuroscience.
Neuroanatomists study the structure and organization of the nervous system. With special dyes, they detect specific neurotransmitters, and mark neurons and synapses with specific characteristics and functions.
Developmental neuroscientists study how the brain grows and changes. They define chemicals and processes neurons use to seek out and connect with other neurons and maintain connections.
Cognitive neuroscientists study functions such as perception and memory in animals by using behavioral methods and other neuroscience techniques. In humans, they use non-invasive brain scans — such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging — to uncover routes of neural processing that occur during language, problem solving and other tasks.
Behavioral neuroscientists study the processes underlying behavior in humans and in animals. Their tools include microelectrodes, which measure electrical activity of neurons, and brain scans, which show parts of the brain that are active during activities such as seeing, speaking or remembering.
Clinical neuroscientists — psychiatrists, neurologists and other medical specialists — use basic research findings to develop diagnostic methods and ways to prevent and treat neurological disorders that affect millions of people.